As rabbits age, it is common for them to develop conditions that make it challenging for them to go about day-to-day activities. Most commonly, rabbits will develop osteoarthritis or degenerative joint disease making it difficult for them to ambulate and groom themselves. Osteoarthritis is a painful condition of the joints that results in inflammation and a decreased range of motion. Most affected joint spaces are the knees (stifles) and the area where the spine meets the pelvis (lumbosacral).
For the public
Pellets should make up the foundation of a healthy parrots diet (60-80% of the total diet), but there are a number of healthy foods you can also offer to provide not only balanced nutrition but give your bird something fun to eat and enjoy. Here is a list of healthy food options for your bird.
There are a number of food items people eat that are not safe or healthy for pet parrots.
Rabbit Viral Hemorrhagic Disease is caused by a Calicivirus. Though multiple types of this virus have been identified, the serotype that has been seen in the most recent outbreaks here in the United States involves Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus serotype 2 (RHDV2). RHDV2 is a non-enveloped, single stranded RNA calicivirus that targets the liver and causes destruction of the cells within the liver leading to severe liver damage and dysfunction as well as problems with the animal’s ability to clot his/her blood.
Peter's banded skinks are uncommon in the reptile hobby. These inquisitive skinks, about the size of a leopard gecko, can make great pets with the right care. They tend to become quite tame and will often beg their owner's for treats. Peter's banded skinks, Scincopus fasciatus, are a monotypic species of the Genus Scincopus which are recognized by their squat bodies, robust limbs, short tails and orange/yellow and black dorsal banding patterns. This species has two described subspecies, S. f. fasciatus and S. f. melanocephalus. The former being described possessing distinct dark transverse blank bands with little to no black on the head while the latter is described as having an almost completely black head and far less distinct black banding. Most captive specimens can be presumed to be of the S. f. fasciatus subspecies based on morphologic appearance. These nocturnal lizards are native to the Sahelian and southern Saharan regions of northern Africa. These sandy regions are extremely arid with limited annual rainfall. Average high temperatures within these regions range from 24 to 42°C (81-108°F) with coolest temperatures dropping as low as 15°C (90°F). Similar environmental conditions should be provided in captivity. Little data is available concerning the natural diet of Scincopus fasciatus. They are believed to be primarily insectivorous, but may consume some plant material. A variety of commercially available insects should be offered along with small amounts of fruits, flowers, and vegetables. The diet should be supplemented with vitamins and minerals. This species UVB lighting requirements are also unknown. Providing this lighting should be strongly encouraged given recent studies have demonstrated benefit in another nocturnal lizard, the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius).
Skin is the largest organ in the body and acts as a physical barrier between the body and the environment. Besides acting as a barrier, the skin also provides sensory input about our environment, helps us regulate heat, provides immunes function, and produces the precursors to Vitamin D. The three layers of the skin are the epidermis, dermis, and subcutis. The epidermis is the most external layer of the skin. This layer contains flat-shaped cells called keratinocytes and pigmented cells called melanocytes. Underneath this layer is the dermis which contains collagen and immune cells. Beneath this is the subcutis which is where the major branches of the vessels and nerves lie.
Wobbly Hedgehog Syndrome (WHS) is a degenerative neurologic condition that can occur in African Pygmy Hedgehogs (aka Four-toed hedgehogs). The cause is unknown, but is believed to be genetic.
Virulent Newcastle Disease, also known as exotic Newcastle Disease, is one of the most deadly diseases of poultry worldwide causing death in almost 100% of unvaccinated birds that become infected. However, it can also cause disease and death in vaccinated birds. In early April 2019, the first case of this disease was diagnosed in northern Arizona.
Rat bite fever is an infectious disease in people caused by the bacteria Streptobacillus moniliformis. People become infected either by being bitten by a rodent carrying the bacteria. While any person who comes into contact with the bacteria is at risk of developing the disease, children under 5 years of age, adults over 65 years of age, and immunocompromised people are at higher risk.